Geographers don't have a magic wand, but they usually have plenty of sophisticated technology and statistical data to help them analyze, research and even forecast how our world could be impacted by a number of geographical forces. Read on to learn what it takes to become a geographer and where most job growth is expected.

Geographers marvel at our world, and they make a career out of it by studying our planet, the people who inhabit it, and Earth's physical characteristics. Some geographers may tell us how geography influences political outcomes, while others study why diabetes is particularly prevalent in the South, and yet others focus on one of today's biggest environmental issues: climate change.

Most geographers work for the federal government, where they are faced with a number of challenges big and small. For instance, some might be tasked with studying whether a proposed site for a shopping mall is topographically acceptable. They use geographic information system technology (GIS) to collect and analyze data and report their findings, in addition to using qualitative research to conduct surveys. As scientists, they question, analyze, and may also challenge conventional wisdom. There are a wide variety of specialty areas available for geographers, as these professionals may choose to become economic geographers, political geographers or urban geographers, among many others.

What geographers do

According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, a geographer's job may entail the following specific duties and responsibilities:

  • Conduct original research using quantitative methods
  • Analyze data, write reports, report on findings
  • Gather data through field observations, satellite imagery, etc.
  • Advise governments, the public, and private entities on myriad issues, including construction or disaster responses
  • Create and modify maps, charts, diagrams and other models

The BLS notes that important qualities for geographers typically include critical-thinking skills, writing and presentation skills, and the ability to solve problems and communicate effectively. In addition, as many geographers work within large government organizations, it's essential to be able to work well in a team and effectively present findings to a potentially large number of different stakeholders with opposing views.

How to become a geographer

Geographers have several different career paths available to them, but all of them require post-secondary education, while some of them require a master's degree or even a Ph.D. For instance, those with a bachelor's degree in geography may be able to obtain entry-level work in both the private and public sector, but according to the BLS, most geographers outside the federal government require a master's degree in geography. Those who want to teach at the post-secondary level and want to become professors must hold a Ph.D. in geography. Many high-level research positions usually require either a master's degree in geography with sufficient experience or a doctorate in the field.

Geographer salary and career outlook

Take a look at the table below for an idea of a geographer salary and expected job growth in the coming years:

CareerTotal EmploymentAnnual Mean Wage
2019 Occupational Employment Statistics and 2018-28 Employment Projections, Bureau of Labor Statistics,


Geographers, Occupational Outlook Handbook, Bureau of Labor Statistics, accessed June 2019,

Geographers, Occupational Employment Statistics, Bureau of Labor Statistspoics, accessed June 2019,

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